Gaze-based predictive user interfaces: Visualizing user intentions in the presence of uncertainty

Human eyes exhibit different characteristic patterns during different virtual interaction tasks such as moving a window, scrolling a piece of text, or maximizing an image. Human-computer studies literature contains examples of intelligent systems that can predict user’s task-related intentions and goals based on eye gaze behavior. However, these systems are generally evaluated in terms of prediction accuracy, and on previously collected offline interaction data. Little attention has been paid to creating real-time interactive systems using eye gaze and evaluating them in online use. We have five main contributions that address this gap from a variety of aspects. First, we present the first line of work that uses real-time feedback generated by a gaze-based probabilistic task prediction model to build an adaptive real-time visualization system. Our system is able to dynamically provide adaptive interventions that are informed by real-time user behavior data. Second, we propose two novel adaptive visualization approaches that take into account the presence of uncertainty in the outputs of prediction models. Third, we offer a personalization method to suggest which approach will be more suitable for each user in terms
of system performance (measured in terms of prediction accuracy). Personalization boosts system performance and provides users with the more optimal visualization approach (measured in terms of usability and perceived task load). Fourth, by means of a thorough usability study, we quantify the effects of the proposed visualization approaches and prediction errors on natural user behavior and the performance of the underlying prediction systems. Finally, this paper also demonstrates that our previously-published gaze-based task prediction system, which was assessed as successful in an offline test scenario, can also be successfully utilized in realistic online usage scenarios.

Keywords:
Implicit interaction, activity prediction, task prediction, uncertainty visualization, gaze-based interfaces, predictive interfaces, proactive interfaces, gaze-contingent interfaces, usability study

Authors: Çağla Çığ and T. M. Sezgin

 

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Visualization Literacy at Elementary School

This work advances our understanding of children’s visualization literacy, and aims to improve it with a novel approach for teaching visualization at elementary schools. We first contribute an analysis of data graphics and activities employed in grade K to 4 educational materials, and the results of a survey conducted with 16 elementary school teachers. We find that visualization education could benefit from integrating pedagogical strategies for teaching abstract concepts with established interactive visualization techniques. Building on these insights, we develop and study design principles for novel interactive teaching material aimed at increasing children’s visualization literacy. We specifically contribute an online platform for teachers and students to respectively teach and learn about pictographs and bar charts and report on our initial observations of its use in grades K and 2.

Author Keywords: visualization literacy; qualitative analysis.

Authors: B. Alper, N. H. Riche, F. Chevalier, J. Boy and T. M. Sezgin

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CHER-ish: A sketch- and image-based system for 3D representation and documentation of cultural heritage sites

We present a work-in-progress report on a sketch- and image-based software called “CHER-ish” designed to help make sense of the cultural heritage data associated with sites within 3D space. The software is based on the previous work done in the domain of 3D sketching for conceptual architectural design, i.e., the system which allows user to visualize urban structures by a set of strokes located in virtual planes in 3D space. In order to interpret and infer the structure of a given cultural heritage site, we use a mix of data such as site photographs and floor plans, and then we allow user to manually locate the available photographs and their corresponding camera positions within 3D space. With the photographs’ camera positions placed in 3D, the user defines a scene’s 3D structure by the means of stokes and other simple 2D geometric entities. We introduce the main system components: virtual planes (canvases), 2D entities (strokes, line segments, photos, polygons) and provide a description of the methods that allow the user to interact with them within the system to create a scene representation. Finally, we demonstrate the usage of the system on two different data sets: a collection of photographs and drawings from Dura-Europos, and drawings and plans from Horace Walpole’s Strawberry Hill villa.
Authors: V. Rudakova, N. Lin, N. Trayan, T. M. Sezgin, J. Dorsey and H.
Rushmeier

Audio-Facial Laughter Detection in Naturalistic Dyadic Conversations

We address the problem of continuous laughter detection over audio-facial input streams obtained from naturalistic dyadic conversations. We first present meticulous annotation of laughters, cross-talks and environmental noise in an audio-facial database with explicit 3D facial mocap data. Using this annotated database, we rigorously investigate the utility of facial information, head movement and audio features for laughter detection. We identify a set of discriminative features using mutual information-based criteria, and show how they can be used with classifiers based on support vector machines (SVMs) and time delay neural networks (TDNNs). Informed by the analysis of the individual modalities, we propose a multimodal fusion setup for laughter detection using different classifier-feature combinations. We also effectively incorporate bagging into our classification pipeline to address the class imbalance problem caused by the scarcity of positive laughter instances. Our results indicate that a combination of TDNNs and SVMs lead to superior detection performance, and bagging effectively addresses data imbalance. Our experiments show that our multimodal approach supported by bagging compares favorably to the state of the art in presence of detrimental factors such as cross-talk, environmental noise, and data imbalance.

Index Terms—Laughter detection, naturalistic dyadic conversations, facial mocap, data imbalance

Authors: B. B. Türker, Y. Yemez, T. M. Sezgin, E. Erzin.

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Sketch Recognition with Few Examples

Sketch recognition is the task of converting hand-drawn digital ink into symbolic computer representations. Since the early days of sketch recognition, the bulk of the work in the field focused on building accurate recognition algorithms for specific domains, and well defined data sets. Recognition methods explored so far have been developed and evaluated using standard machine learning pipelines and have consequently been built over many simplifying assumptions. For example, existing frameworks assume the presence of a fixed set of symbol classes, and the availability of plenty of annotated examples. However, in practice, these assumptions do not hold. In reality, the designer of a sketch recognition system starts with no labeled data at all, and faces the burden of data annotation. In this work, we propose to alleviate the burden of annotation by building systems that can learn from very few labeled examples, and large amounts of unlabeled data. Our systems perform self-learning by automatically extending a very small set of labeled examples with new examples extracted from unlabeled sketches. The end result is a sufficiently large set of labeled training data, which can subsequently be used to train classifiers. We present four self-learning methods with varying levels of implementation difficulty and runtime complexities. One of these methods leverages contextual co-occurrence patterns to build verifiably more diverse set of training instances. Rigorous experiments with large sets of data demonstrate that this novel approach based on exploiting contextual information leads to significant leaps in recognition performance. As a side contribution, we also demonstrate the utility of bagging for sketch recognition in imbalanced data sets with few positive examples and many outlier

Authors: K. T. Yeşilbek, T. M. Sezgin.

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Characterizing User Behavior for Speech and Sketch-based Video Retrieval Interfaces

From a user interaction perspective, speech and sketching make a good couple for describing motion. Speech allows easy specification of content, events and relationships, while sketching brings inspatial expressiveness. Yet, we have insufficient knowledge of how sketching and speech can be used for motion-based video retrieval, because there are no existing retrieval systems that support such interaction. In this paper, we describe a Wizard-of-Oz protocol and a set of tools that we have developed to engage users in a sketch and speech-based video retrieval task. We report how the tools and the protocol fit together using ”retrieval of soccer videos” as a use case scenario. Our software is highly customizable, and our protocol is easy to follow. We believe that together they will serve as a convenient and powerful duo for studying a wide range of multi-modal use cases.

Keywords: sketch-based interfaces, human-centered design, motion, multimedia retrieval

Authors: O. C. Altıok, T. M. Sezgin.

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Analysis of Engagement and User Experience with a Laughter Responsive Social Robot

We explore the effect of laughter perception and response in terms of engagement in human-robot interaction. We designed two distinct experiments in which the robot has two modes:
laughter responsive and laughter non-responsive. In responsive mode, the robot detects laughter using a multimodal real-time laughter detection module and invokes laughter as a backchannel to users accordingly. In non-responsive mode, robot has no utilization of detection, thus provides no feedback. In the experimental design, we use a straightforward question-answer based interaction scenario using a back-projected robot head. We evaluate the interactions with objective and subjective measurements of engagement and user experience.
Index Terms: laughter detection, human-computer interaction,
laughter responsive, engagement.
Authors: B. B. Türker, Z. Buçinca, E. Erzin, Y. Yemez, and M. T. Sezgin.

Material Design in Augmented Reality with In-Situ Visual Feedback

Material design is the process by which artists or designers set the appearance properties of virtual surface to achieve a desired look. This process is often conducted in a virtual synthetic environment however, advances in computer vision tracking and interactive rendering now makes it possible to design materials in augmented reality (AR), rather than purely virtual synthetic, environments. However, how designing in an AR environment affects user behavior is unknown. To evaluate how work in a real environment influences the material design process, we propose a novel material design interface that allows designers
to interact with a tangible object as they specify appearance properties. The setup gives designers the opportunity to view the real-time rendering of appearance properties through a virtual reality setup as they manipulate the object. Our setup uses a camera to capture the physical surroundings of the designer to create subtle but realistic reflection effects on the virtual view superimposed on the tangible object. The effects are based on the physical lighting conditions of the actual design space. We describe a user study that compares the efficacy of our method to that of a traditional 3D virtual synthetic material design system. Both subjective feedback and quantitative analysis from our study suggest that the in-situ experience provided by our setup allows the creation of higher quality material properties and supports the sense of interaction and immersion.

Authors: W. Shi, Z. Wang, T. M. Sezgin, J Dorsey, H. Rushmeier.

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Sketch-Based Articulated 3D Shape Retrieval

Sketch-based queries are a suitable and superior alternative to traditional text- and example-based queries for 3D shape retrieval. The authors developed an articulated 3D shape retrieval method that uses easy-toobtain 2D sketches. It does not require 3D example models to initiate queries but achieves accuracy comparable to a state-of-the-art example-based 3D shape retrieval method.

Authors: Y. Sahillioglu, T. M. Sezgin.

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